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Irregular Past Participles

Most Past Participles are formed by simply removing the last two letters of the infinitive and adding -ado for -Ar verbs and -ido for -Er and -Ir verbs

But of course there are a some irregulars!

I like to think of them as the "chosen toes" because they end either in "-cho" or "sto/to".

"Cho" Infinitives

Past Participle

English meaning

Decir dicho said
Hacer hecho done, made
Deshacer deshecho undone
Rehacer rehecho redone

"Sto" Infinitives

Past Participle

English meaning

Poner puesto put, placed
Ver visto seen

"To" Infinitives

Past Participle

English meaning

Abrir abierto opened
Cubrir cubierto covered
Descubrir descubierto discovered
Escribir escrito written
Morir muerto [has] died, [is] dead (adjective)
Romper roto broken

And a there are a couple of funky "so" verbs:

Apresar preso imprisoned
Imprimir impreso printed

Some Past Participles need accent marks because they are Er or Ir verbs which have stems ending in a vowel.

These Past Participles are formed according to the regular pattern but need an accent mark on the poodle "i" to keep the "i" sound of "ido." Without an accent mark, the "i" would form a dipthong with the stronger vowel.


Past Participle

English meaning

Caer caído fallen
Creer creído believed
Leer leído read
Oír oído heard
Traer traído brought